When I’m in a testing activity I want my test cases [Passed], my user stories [done] and my coffee [black]. Stuff may have a start point, some states in between and an end state. Lets look at ways to represent states and articulate the meaning of states. One way to illustrate status about the product being tested is to model the activities we have with states. An agile user story may be [ready], [in progress] or [done]. A document may be [final], [approved] and a mind map may be iconified etc. States are so common that we sometimes forget the theory behind the model, and what benefits we have from the theories.
The representation of closure
For instance we can look to computer science graph theory to help us understand and control the states diagrams. It is the same graph theory that brings us state machines and state-transition diagrams, but that is another story . In a graph theory state model we want one unique start state (Like [To do]), and one unique end state (like [passed]), everything in between is intermediate.
A (single) end state helps prevent the state machine from going on forever , and us from going on forever too. [Deferred] and [Rejected] are temporary states to me. Setting [Rejected] back to “detected by” will aid that the tester reflects on the reasons. The reasons are then tested (in the brain). Sometimes it’s a “my bad” but quite often also the tester finds that issue is simply not “rejected” with more data and examples.
The understanding of closure
Similarly the agile “Definition of Done” and “Definition of Ready” helps the agile team phrase when the task is to change state, sometimes it’s explicit, sometimes it’s implied. The understanding of terms (the semantics) are usually more imperative than the syntax (the rules and representation). Sometimes it’s necessary to “connect the lines”.
There are a two related psychology theories on closure. One is the Gestalt law of closure – that is that we tend to self-organize items into an orderly structure. As the image above isn’t really about triangles – it’s about our human tendency to connect the dots. The other psychology part is the desire to close stuff to gain controllability:
The need for closure is the motivation to find an answer to an ambiguous situation. This motivation is enhanced by the perceived benefits of obtaining closure, such as the increased ability to predict the world and a stronger basis for action.
Management and stakeholders often want a “firm and unambiguous” answer from our testing investigations. And this is often the business justification for setting states to our work products; that we have states to illustrate work progress in. Sometimes loose representations and a strong shared understanding goes well, sometimes a more strict representation and elaboration is required.
The syntax of states may be easily explained and codified (and checked), while the semantics and perception is less direct – and needs analysis (and testing). All work products (even for mind maps and test charters) have states and we must articulate both the syntax and the semantics to the team and stakeholders.
In May 11 1997 a computer beat the world champion Kasparov in chess  – not convincingly, but still. From then on chess could be reduced to a set of scripts and the scripts automated so fast that it was comparable to the human mind . But the human chess players continued to succeed – not by more rote memorisation, but by more intuition and feelings.
Imagine that – to play world champion chess and base your moves on feelings. This is what Magnus Carlsen does . As of January 2014 he is the reigning World Chess Champion  and the no. 1 ranked player in the world  with the highest rating in history . I must admit that I read about him in the paper  , but the story relates to how even one of the most complex brain games can be automated, and yet there are still moves to explore.
To play according to textbooks is fine, up to a certain level. Perhaps up to master level, but not to grandmasters. 
Originally chess was a game played on a board, but even more so in the brain of the players. Grand masters of the cold war super powers played each other with full focus on both the board moves and the body moves.
Encyclopaedias of chess moves have been written; 1700+ chess moves have been given mnemonics like “the Sicilian Defence”, “King Gambit” (SFDEPOT anyone?). And the chess masters have played and played and memorized and played (against) the computer again and again.
There are books, terminology, strategies and schools of chess . To quote Wikipedia:
A school (of chess)means a (chess) player or group of players that share common ideas about the strategy (of the game). There have been several schools in the history (of modern chess). Today there is less dependence on schools – players draw on many sources and play according to their personal style.
After Kasparov there were other world chess champions  – and lately 23 year old Magnus Carlsen, as mentioned. Carlsen started playing chess in 1998; he played Kasparov  as a 13 year old for a draw and later had Kasparov and the Danish grand master Peter Heine Nielsen as a trainer. Heine Nielsen explains about Carlsen:
“While the existing World Champion Anand ’s strength was being able to prepare thoroughly and calculate moves very fast while playing, Carlsen is different – he thrives in the contexts that are not distilled by the computer or text books. When it’s man to man – then he’s the opposite of a computer; the one that often does the unexpected yet effectual play. He plays a variety of openings – making it really hard to prepare for.”
Carlsen can’t describe, what goes on in his brain, while he plays chess. Some moves just feels good; and when the opponent play is somewhat based on computer calculations – that is maybe the best response. 
Chess didn’t die with the automation, chess didn’t die by being distilled in text books and templates and mnemonics – but chess evolved. The current unfair advantage for Carlsen is his irrationality and intuition – it’s what sets him apart from the scripts.
The day testing died – but didn’t, is another story Or is it?
In the recent years I have been working on projects with no dedicated testers but plenty of testing. The testing has primarily been performed by subject matter experts. This is where it gets interesting, as my role on these projects has been to lead the testing being performed by people that have limited experience in testing. They also have no desire to be testing specialists, after all they are already specialists in their own subjects, however, everyone agrees and insist that the testing needs doing. So how do we ensure that the testing being done is done well? After having worked on several very different projects, yet still with subject matter experts doing the testing, I have been able to get both the public process clerks and the technology specialists to perform excellent testing. This talk is about the approaches that I have found work well:
One of the approaches is for me to prepare the test cases and prepare them only as headlines. Sometimes preparing the tests as open questions helps too.
Another approach is to lead them as if they are doing the project participation voluntarily. They probably are, but still it helps to respect where they are coming from.
The lessons though (good and bad) is relevant to many testers in other situations, especially being the only “tester” on the team. The story applies equally to developers and business end users doing most of the testing and you will have them contributing with great testing in no time!
What you will know after the talk:
An understanding of how testing looks when done by subject matter experts
How to lead a testing activity with an appreciative and motivating style
Examples of how teams can do great testing without dedicated testers
Currently I am doing a large V-model waterfall project with a three month testing period and 500+ requirements. To track the progress I want to dust off my old “test progress tracking” method that I matured and described in 2011 and 2014.
The approach was documented in two articles for “The Testing Planet” a paper magazine by the Software Testing Club. The “STC” later became the now world famous Ministry of Testing.Unfortunately the original articles are no longer available on the MoT site – they are on the WayBackMachine. So not to track down that path, here’s a recap of:
For large (enterprise, waterfall) projects tracking test progress is important, as it helps us understand if we will finish a given test scope on time. Tracking many of projects have given me one key performance indicator: daily Percent Passed tests as compared to an s-curve. The data in the S-curve is based on the following data points, based on numerous projects:
Expected Passed Progress
If the “Actual” curve is flat over more days or is below the blue trend line, then investigate what is blocking the test progress… defects perhaps:
The Defect Count and Camel Image
During a large project like this the active bug count goes up and down. No one can tell what we find tomorrow or how many we will find. In my experience tracking the daily count of active defects (i.e. not resolved) is key, and will oscillate like the humps on a camel:
If the curve doesn’t bend down after a few days there are bottlenecks in the timely resolution of defects found. When the count goes up – testing a new (buggy) area is usually happening. Over time the tops of the humps should be lower and lower and by the end of the project, steep down to 0.
And thus a little track history has come a long way.
There is no doubt that our long lived testing narrative is under pressure. To continue to bring business value, both the IT field and testing is transforming to be about proactive business enabling.
The IT domain is currently buzzing with the word “IT transformation” – the idea that IT services should be more about “inspire, challenge and transform the digital businesses“. That it should be less about delivering IT products and artifacts and more about enabling digital business outcomes. Even for testing – it should be less about a product/service, and more about business necessity. As Anders writes:
Stop focusing on the things that bug people, and dare to do both IT and testing smarter and more business focused from the start. Build Quality in – smarter from start. That goes for IT services as a whole, and definitely also for the testing activities.
What can you do to transform your testing? I have three areas:
Leading Quality [Cummings-John, Peer 2019] has a whole chapter on “Align your team to your company growth metric“. Consider if the company you work for is driven by Attention, Transaction or Productivity metrics, and arrange your test activities accordingly.
Dare to Deliver in New Ways
We are usually talk so much about optimizing the (IT and testing) delivery, that we forget other ways to be innovative and provide business enabling. One way could be to dare use new technology like RPA or a HoloLens to support tedious tasks in testing – to use an existing product to something new. Another approach to actually test “all the things” that matter or to apply testing to IT outside the realm of application delivery.
To Transform Testing I will discuss, align and dare so that test solutions can be proactive business enablers – (not only achieve shippable quality).
As of writing I am managing the testing of a large enterprise IT program, where we are implementing a new commercial enterprise solution (COTS).
Over the last many months there have been requirement workshops upon requirement workshop to write down what the new system should be able to do for the various business units. We have had many representatives from the business units as part of the workshops and now have about 1000 specific business requirements that needs to be tested.
Some requirements are closed questions, others are more open-ended or similarly require some thinking. Currently the ratio is that 70% is done by test automation and 30% is for a few of the subject matter experts to test. Management was happy with this, as this made the project faster, the solution more robust and the project less reliant on taking the business people away from their “real work”.
The other day I reached out by mail to more of the business people involved in the workshops to let them know that testing had started, and that they would be able to access the solution under test when it had been “hardened”. But so far, only a few “track leads” would be involved.
The feedback surprised me, as my message was both good and bad. Good in the sense that they would not be involved so much, but also bad that they would not be involved so much. One wrote back to me:
There is still a risk that the solution will not be as the workshops intended, as the requirements and solution might not capture precisely, what was agreed during the workshops
Having been part of the workshop, we are held responsible by our coworkers as to how well the new system supports the business
Why don’t the project want our involvement on this?